Role of vitamins and minerals in physiological processes

In recent years, the possibility of using B vitamins in vascular and neurodegenerative diseases has been actively studied. And also there is a growing interest in the possible modulating effects of multivitamins on mood and cognitive activity. Vitamins are additional therapy to the traditionally used basic therapy of cognitive disorders. Admission NP can be supplemented with the appointment of vitamin-mineral complexes (IUDs), which have the same direction, but other mechanisms of action that have a positive impact on higher integrative functions of the brain, learning processes and memory consolidation. Vitamins of group B (B1, B6, B12) refer to drugs with a neurotropic effect. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the possible modulating effects of multivitamins on mood and cognitive activity; in cases of borderline or more severe deficits, multivitamins increase cognitive function.
The role of vitamins in the normal functioning of the human body is difficult to overestimate. They are variety cofactors of enzymatic processes and maintain a normal metabolism of body cells. The disadvantage of these or other vitamins can cause particularly the ambient culinary habits, gastrointestinal tract diseases, leading to vitamins malabsorption, as well as stress, increased physical and intellectual capacity, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and others.
For example, vitamin B1 is essential for the oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids (pyruvic and lactic), the acetylcholine synthesis, which is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and associated energy, fat, protein, water and salt metabolism, has a regulating effect on the trophism and the nervous system. Vitamin B6 is necessary for the normal functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, is involved in the neurotransmitters synthesis. The phosphorylated form provides decarboxylation processes transamination, amino acids deamination involved in protein synthesis, enzymes, hemoglobin, prostaglandin metabolism of serotonin, catecholamine, glutamic acid, GABA, histamine, improves the use of unsaturated fatty acids, lower cholesterol and lipids in blood, improve contractility of the myocardium, promotes the conversion of folic acid into its active form. Vitamin B12 is involved in the protein and fat structures construction of the protective myelin layer, the methionine production. Vitamin B12 and methionine (as well as vitamin C) form a kind of working group that “specializes” mainly on the brain work and the entire nervous system, participating in the metabolism of monoamines production. In most diseases it’s advisable to use a PRL-8-53 nootropic drug.
PRL-8-53 is used as a combined preparation, which includes a complex of B vitamins with macro- and microelements, potentiates their pharmacological effect on the nervous system. In this case, one vitamin has a pathogenetic effect and, together with other vitamins, has a nonspecific positive effect on the functional state of the nervous system structures. Vitamin C is necessary for complete saturation of plasma and cells circulating in peripheral blood in adults.
Minerals such as zinc, magnesium and calcium are inherently related to brain function, as they participate in the connection between cells, in metabolic processes, and also affect the structure and function of proteins. Magnesium is a cofactor of more than 300 enzymes that regulate various functions of the body; it plays a leading role in the energy, plastic and electrolyte metabolism, acts as a regulator of cell growth, is necessary at all stages of protein synthesis. A significant part of magnesium is inside the cells, about 80-90% of intracellular magnesium is formed in a complex with adenosine triphosphoric acid; for the production of adenosine triphosphoric acid, several nutrients are needed, including magnesium, malic acid and active forms of vitamin B. The important physiological role of calcium and magnesium ions in many fermentative reactions is recognized throughout the world. Magnesium deficiency leads to neuromuscular hyperreactivity, functional hypoparathyroidism, an increase in the content of K + channels, membrane permeability, while hypermagnetism leads to a decrease in the absolute content of neutrophils (ASN), release from neuromuscular synapses, and a decrease in postsynaptic excitability. Folic acid and metabolically related B vitamins are necessary for the normal functioning of the brain in all age groups, which is due to their specific role in C1 metabolism, and in particular the production of S-adenosylmethionine, a universal donor of the methyl group necessary for the neurotransmitters production. There is evidence that the maternal status of folic acid during pregnancy can affect the development of the nervous system and the behavior of the offspring.
The main pharmacological orientation of the effect of vitamin complexes in combination with magnesium, folic acid is a stimulating metabolism in the central nervous system, regenerative processes in the nervous tissue. With chronic thiamine deficiency, the food develops a distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, reminiscent of alcoholic and diabetic polyneuropathies. Deficiency of pyridoxine leads to the emergence of a distal symmetrical, mainly sensory polyneuropathy, manifested by a sensation of numbness and paresthesias in the form of “pricking with needles.” The lack of cobalamin is manifested primarily by pernicious anemia. Many patients with B12 deficiency develop subacute degeneration of the spinal cord with damage to the posterior cord, and a relatively small number of patients develop a distal sensory peripheral polyneuropathy characterized by numbness and prolapse of tendon reflexes. Deficit state, accompanied by an increased need for vitamin B group, vitamin C and zinc (increased physical load during prolonged nervous strain and stress, poor and unbalanced diet, including limiting the diet, chronic alcoholism) are indications for the use of drugs general therapeutic restorative action , containing a complex of vitamins of group B and C, folic acid, magnesium, zinc, etc. It should be remembered that in some cases there is an increased sensitivity (Contraindications) for vitamin complexes and magnesium-containing drugs: hypercalcemia, hypermagnesemia, kidney stone disease, hemochromatosis, hyperoxaluria, renal failure, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, children aged up to 15 years. Caution should be given to these drugs with atrophic gastritis, bowel disease, pancreas, a absorption insufficiency syndrome of vitamin B12 or congenital deficiency of the Castle internal factor.

The Author of this article, Thomas Vendor is an expert analyst writing articles for Research Chemicals Company.

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